johann wolfgang von goethe lebenslauf referat

[107][108] Both Diderot and Goethe exhibited a repugnance towards the mathematical interpretation of nature; both perceived the universe as dynamic and in constant flux; both saw "art and science as compatible disciplines linked by common imaginative processes"; and both grasped "the unconscious impulses underlying mental creation in all forms. [107], Thinkers such as Ralph Waldo Emerson would take up many similar ideas in the 1800s. Throughout his life Goethe was interested in a variety of studies and pursuits. I laid my hand on his heart – there was a deep silence – and I turned away to give free vent to my suppressed tears. His father had made a similar journey during his own youth, and his example was a major motivating factor for Goethe to make the trip. Johann Wolfgang Goethe, od roku 1782 von Goethe (28. srpna 1749 Frankfurt nad Mohanem – 22. března 1832 Výmar, Sasko-výmarské vévodství), byl německý básník, prozaik, dramatik a politik.. Narodil se ve svobodném říšském městě Frankfurtu nad Mohanem jako syn velmi zámožné rodiny. Another bout of illness then brought him apparently near death, and in the aftermath he underwent a brief conversion from freethinking to evangelical Christianity. In it, he contentiously characterized colour as arising from the dynamic interplay of light and darkness through the mediation of a turbid medium. Goethe's six-volume autobiography, Aus meinem Leben: Dichtung und Wahrheit (1811-22; trans. This prematurely terminated his career as a lawyer after only a few months. He is also widely quoted. [41] In 1790, he published his Metamorphosis of Plants. Goethe was a Freemason, joining the lodge Amalia in Weimar in 1780, and frequently alluded to Masonic themes of universal brotherhood in his work,[88] he was also attracted to the Bavarian Illuminati a secret society founded on 1 May 1776. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Der Zauberlehrling - … The literary estate of Goethe in the Goethe and Schiller Archives was inscribed on UNESCO's Memory of the World Register in 2001 in recognition of its historical significance.[103]. Kam aus einer angesehenen Familie (Textor) - Nach Johann Wolfgang wurden noch 5 weitere Kinder geboren. [47] In 1816, Schopenhauer went on to develop his own theory in On Vision and Colours based on the observations supplied in Goethe's book. [94][96] Goethe always spoke of Napoleon with the greatest respect, confessing that "nothing higher and more pleasing could have happened to me in all my life" than to have met Napoleon in person. Goethe outlines his method in the essay The experiment as mediator between subject and object (1772). Goethe's diaries of this period form the basis of the non-fiction Italian Journey. Omissions? How could I, to whom the only significant things are civilization [Kultur] and barbarism, hate a nation which is among the most cultivated in the world, and to which I owe a great part of my own culture? [31], The most important of Goethe's works produced before he went to Weimar were Götz von Berlichingen (1773), a tragedy that was the first work to bring him recognition, and the novel The Sorrows of Young Werther (German: Die Leiden des jungen Werthers) (1774), which gained him enormous fame as a writer in the Sturm und Drang period which marked the early phase of Romanticism. [6] Johann Caspar married Goethe's mother, Catharina Elizabeth Textor at Frankfurt on 20 August 1748, when he was 38 and she was 17. The short epistolary novel, Die Leiden des jungen Werthers, or The Sorrows of Young Werther, published in 1774, recounts an unhappy romantic infatuation that ends in suicide. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Joseph Karl Stieler festménye: Élete: Születési név: Johann Wolfgang von Goethe: Született: 1749. augusztus 28. Goethe praised Francis Bacon for his advocacy of science based on experiment and his forceful revolution in thought as one of the greatest strides forward in modern science. ("Do you know the land where the lemon trees bloom?"). [10] He adored Caritas Meixner (1750–1773), a wealthy Worms trader's daughter and friend of his sister, who would later marry the merchant G. F. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? The body lay naked, only wrapped in a white sheet; large pieces of ice had been placed near it, to keep it fresh as long as possible. p. 343, Scientific Studies, Suhrkamp ed., vol. Their last meeting in Carlsbad on 5 September 1823 inspired him to the famous Marienbad Elegy which he considered one of his finest works. [58][59] His own descriptions of his relationship to the Christian faith and even to the Church varied widely and have been interpreted even more widely, so that while Goethe's secretary Eckermann portrayed him as enthusiastic about Christianity, Jesus, Martin Luther, and the Protestant Reformation, even calling Christianity the "ultimate religion,"[60] on one occasion Goethe described himself as "not anti-Christian, nor un-Christian, but most decidedly non-Christian,"[61] and in his Venetian Epigram 66, Goethe listed the symbol of the cross among the four things that he most disliked. They had already had several children together by this time, including their son, Julius August Walter von Goethe (1789–1830), whose wife, Ottilie von Pogwisch (1796–1872), cared for the elder Goethe until his death in 1832. His last words, according to his doctor Carl Vogel, were, Mehr Licht! He also journeyed to Sicily during this time, and wrote intriguingly that "To have seen Italy without having seen Sicily is to not have seen Italy at all, for Sicily is the clue to everything." This collaborative friendship lasted until Schiller's death in 1805. Referat Johann Wolfgang von Goethe Lebenslauf Kindheit und Jugend - Geburt am 28.08.1749 in Frankfurt am Main - Vater: Johann Caspar Goethe, Jurist - Mutter: Catharina Elisabeth Goethe, Hausfrau. Although the accuracy of Goethe's observations does not admit a great deal of criticism, his aesthetic approach did not lend itself to the demands of analytic and mathematical analysis used ubiquitously in modern Science. Goethe noted in his diary: "Fires, rapine, a frightful night... Preservation of the house through steadfastness and luck." [97], Germaine de Staël, in De l'Allemagne (1813), presented German Classicism and Romanticism as a potential source of spiritual authority for Europe, and identified Goethe as a living classic. Von 1994 bis 2008 war er Vorsitzender der Gerhart-Hauptmann-Stiftung Kloster auf Hiddensee. He was opposed to the church ceremony that was, at the time, the only way of being legally married, so, although she bore Goethe a son, August, in 1789, he didn’t marry her until the Napoleonic army sacked the city in which they lived. The nobility and the grand and petty sovereigns who figured so much in Goethe’s later life had no part in his early experiences: he was a town child from a rich family in an essentially middle-class world. The first part was published in 1808 and created a sensation. Dobře znal i lteraturu v těchto jazycích psanou. She was emotionally distraught at the time, but they were eventually reconciled.[21]. His father and private tutors gave Goethe lessons in all the common subjects of their time, especially languages (Latin, Greek, French, Italian, English and Hebrew). Stretched upon his back, he reposed as if asleep; profound peace and security reigned in the features of his sublimely noble countenance. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. During the years at Weimar before he met Schiller he began Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship, wrote the dramas Iphigenie auf Tauris (Iphigenia in Tauris), Egmont, Torquato Tasso, and the fable Reineke Fuchs. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe [28.8.1749-22.3.1832] [1] Johann Wolfgang von Goethe se narodil roku 1749 v dobře situované rodině ve Frankfurtu nad Mohanem. The Lover’s Caprice), begun in 1767. Johann Caspar, feeling frustrated in his own ambitions, was determined that his children should have all those advantages that he had not.[6]. Johann Wolfgang Goethe nabyl revolucionářem, ale věděl, že z rozkladu feudalismu a z nástupu měšťanské třídy ,vzniká nový svět. [7] All their children, with the exception of Johann Wolfgang and his sister, Cornelia Friederica Christiana, who was born in 1750, died at early ages. 'Goethe: The Man and His Character'. V šestnácti letech začal … The outer shape of the work's plot is widely taken over from what Goethe experienced during his Wetzlar time with Charlotte Buff (1753–1828)[16] and her fiancé, Johann Christian Kestner (1741–1800),[16] as well as from the suicide of the author's friend Karl Wilhelm Jerusalem (1747–1772); in it, Goethe made a desperate passion of what was in reality a hearty and relaxed friendship. The barricading of the kitchen and the cellar against the wild pillaging soldiery was her work. Homology, or as Étienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire called it "analogie", was used by Charles Darwin as strong evidence of common descent and of laws of variation. Goethe became severely ill in Frankfurt. Goethe's comments and observations form the basis of several biographical works, notably Johann Peter Eckermann's Conversations with Goethe (1836). "[56] On another occasion he wrote: "I like boys a lot, but the girls are even nicer. Karl Robert Mandelkow, Bodo Morawe: Goethes Briefe. In 1782, when the chancellor of the Duchy's Exchequer left his office, Goethe agreed to act in his place for two and a half years; this post virtually made him prime minister and the principal representative of the Duchy. Johann’s mother, Catharina Elisabeth Textor (1731–1808), was a daughter of Frankfurt’s most senior official. He also took great pleasure in reading works on history and religion. [94][95] Goethe came away from the meeting deeply impressed with Napoleon's enlightened intellect and his efforts to build an alternative to the corrupt old regime. The work subsequently inspired operas and oratorios by Schumann, Berlioz, Gounod, Boito, Busoni, and Schnittke as well as symphonic works by Liszt, Wagner, and Mahler. The Faust tragedy/drama, often called Das Drama der Deutschen (the drama of the Germans), written in two parts published decades apart, would stand as his most characteristic and famous artistic creation. He fell in love with the daughter of an innkeeper, Käthchen Schönkopf, but she preferred someone more solid, a lawyer who eventually became deputy burgomaster of Leipzig. In 1806, Goethe was living in Weimar with his mistress Christiane Vulpius, the sister of Christian A. Vulpius, and their son Julius August Walther [de]. Goethe’s mother, Catharina Elisabeth Textor (1731–1808), was one of the daughters of Frankfurt’s most senior official and was a lively woman closer in age to her son than to her husband. [citation needed] Along with Schiller, he was one of the leading figures of Weimar Classicism. He writes about this period: I had from childhood the singular habit of always learning by heart the beginnings of books, and the divisions of a work, first of the five books of Moses, and then of the 'Aeneid' and Ovid's 'Metamorphoses'. On 13 October, Napoleon's army invaded the town. This is pictured, somewhat satirically, in George Eliot's Middlemarch. Thus...[not] the question, What are they for? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Mit dem Erbe konnte sich Goethes Vater, Johann Caspar Goethe, bereits im Alter von 32 Jahren zur Ruhe setzen und seinen Interessen nachgehen. During the year and a half that followed, because of several relapses, the relationship with his father worsened. Goethe studied law at Leipzig University from 1765 to 1768. 3. Lines from Faust, such as "Das also war des Pudels Kern", "Das ist der Weisheit letzter Schluss", or "Grau ist alle Theorie" have entered everyday German usage. Carlyles weg zu Goethe. Goethe thus went to live in Weimar, where he remained for the rest of his life and where, over the course of many years, he held a succession of offices, becoming the Duke's friend and chief adviser. During his first ten years in Weimar, Goethe became a member of the Duke's privy council, sat on the war and highway commissions, oversaw the reopening of silver mines in nearby Ilmenau, and implemented a series of administrative reforms at the University of Jena. Italian Journey only covers the first year of Goethe's visit. Referat Johann Wolfgang von Goethe von Julia Grauer Mai 2005 „Denn, was man schwarz auf weiß besitzt, kann man getrost nach Hause tragen.“ Faust I Goethe was the eldest of seven children, though only one other survived into adulthood, his sister Cornelia (1750–77). Johann Wolfgang von Goethe[a] (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman. Referat über Goethe // Der Tragödie zweiter Teil HD (2/2) - Duration: 4:00. Goethe also pursued literary plans again; this time, his father did not have anything against it, and even helped. [108], His views make him, along with Adam Smith, Thomas Jefferson, and Ludwig van Beethoven, a figure in two worlds: on the one hand, devoted to the sense of taste, order, and finely crafted detail, which is the hallmark of the artistic sense of the Age of Reason and the neo-classical period of architecture; on the other, seeking a personal, intuitive, and personalized form of expression and society, firmly supporting the idea of self-regulating and organic systems. Goethe is the only German literary figure whose range and international standing equal those of Germany’s supreme philosophers (who have often drawn on his works and ideas) and composers (who have often set his works to music). Letter to Boisserée dated 22 March 1831 quoted in Peter Boerner, McCabe, Joseph. 1685 zog er nach Frankfurt am Main und unterhielt hier eine florierende Schneiderei. A perfect man lay in great beauty before me; and the rapture the sight caused me made me forget for a moment that the immortal spirit had left such an abode. Some of the Venetian Epigrams were held back from publication due to their sexual content. [32][citation needed], Goethe was fascinated by Kalidasa's Abhijñānaśākuntalam, which was one of the first works of Sanskrit literature that became known in Europe, after being translated from English to German.[33]. The intimate bond with von Stein lasted for ten years, after which Goethe abruptly left for Italy without giving his companion any notice. Where did Johann Wolfgang von Goethe study law in 1765-1768? Schopenhauer cited Goethe's novel Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship as one of the four greatest novels ever written, along with Tristram Shandy, La Nouvelle Héloïse and Don Quixote. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe > German poet, novelist, playwright, courtier, and natural philosopher, one of the greatest figures in Western literature. Perhaps the single most influential piece is "Mignon's Song" which opens with one of the most famous lines in German poetry, an allusion to Italy: "Kennst du das Land, wo die Zitronen blühn?" The luck was Goethe's, the steadfastness was displayed by Christiane. If I tire of her as a girl, she'll play the boy for me as well". [54], Many of Goethe's works, especially Faust, the Roman Elegies, and the Venetian Epigrams, depict erotic passions and acts. Mladý Goethe se učil řecky, latinsky, hebrejsky, francouzsky, anglicky, a italsky. It was while reciting a certain verse that he was struck with the epiphany that would lead to the idea of the rotating magnetic field and ultimately, alternating current. [48] Goethe's work also inspired the philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein, to write his Remarks on Colour. The mighty brow seemed yet to harbour thoughts. [38] He wrote several works on morphology, and colour theory. Born in Frankfurt, Germany, on August 28, 1749, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe was tutored extensively in languages as a child. Johann Wolfgang Goethe Jeden z největších světových básníků, mnohostranný umělec, myslitel a vědec se narodil 28. Pronesl: „Zde a dnes začíná nová epocha světových dějin a můžeme říct, že jsme byli účastni při jejich zrození“. August 1749 in Frankfurt am Main geboren. And, between ourselves, I never hated the French, although I thanked God when we were rid of them. His conversations and various shared undertakings throughout the 1790s with Schiller, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Johann Gottfried Herder, Alexander von Humboldt, Wilhelm von Humboldt, and August and Friedrich Schlegel have come to be collectively termed Weimar Classicism. For instance, in Faust, the first use of Faust's power after signing a contract with the devil is to seduce a teenage girl. During this period Goethe published his second novel, Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship; the verse epic Hermann and Dorothea, and, in 1808, the first part of his most celebrated drama, Faust. Genre/Form: Academic theses: Additional Physical Format: Online version: Plagens, Hermann. The Serbian inventor and electrical engineer Nikola Tesla was heavily influenced by Goethe's Faust, his favorite poem, and had actually memorized the entire text. Unlike most of his contemporaries, he had no need, at least in the first half of his life, to seek princely patronage of his writing or employment as an official or an academic. With these I must come to terms when I have long wandered alone; they may call me right and wrong; to them will I listen when in the process they call each other right and wrong."[92]. phil. The Federal Republic of Germany's cultural institution, the Goethe-Institut is named after him, and promotes the study of German abroad and fosters knowledge about Germany by providing information on its culture, society and politics. "[93] The two discussed politics, the writings of Voltaire, and Goethe's Sorrows of Young Werther, which Napoleon had read seven times and ranked among his favorites. trans. During his first meeting with Napoleon in 1808, the latter famously remarked: "Vous êtes un homme (You are a man)! Goethe's secretary Riemer reports: 'Although already undressed and wearing only his wide nightgown... he descended the stairs towards them and inquired what they wanted from him.... His dignified figure, commanding respect, and his spiritual mien seemed to impress even them.' He was fascinated by mineralogy, and the mineral goethite (iron oxide) is named after him. Faust became the ur-myth of many figures in the 19th century. "[27], Mendelssohn was invited to meet Goethe on several later occasions,[28] and set a number of Goethe's poems to music. Die Romantik BIOGRAFIE Der Erlkönig Notiere mit! Schuler.[11]. [100] Matthew Arnold found in Goethe the "Physician of the Iron Age" and "the clearest, the largest, the most helpful thinker of modern times" with a "large, liberal view of life. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Updates? All its parts have a direct effect on one another, a relationship to one another, thereby constantly renewing the circle of life; thus we are justified in considering every animal physiologically perfect. [42][43] As one of the many precursors in the history of evolutionary thought, Goethe wrote in Story of My Botanical Studies (1831): The ever-changing display of plant forms, which I have followed for so many years, awakens increasingly within me the notion: The plant forms which surround us were not all created at some given point in time and then locked into the given form, they have been given... a felicitous mobility and plasticity that allows them to grow and adapt themselves to many different conditions in many different places. As his studies did not progress, Goethe was forced to return to Frankfurt at the close of August 1768. Johann Wolfgang Goethe, înnobilat în anul 1782 (n. 28 august 1749, Frankfurt am Main – d. 22 martie 1832, Weimar) a fost un poet german, ilustru gânditor și om de știință, una dintre cele mai de seamă personalități ale culturii universale. “Goethe's Criticisms, Reflections, and Maxims” 55 Copy quote. Truth and poetry: from my own life", "A meeting of genius: Beethoven and Goethe, July 1812", "The Emergence of the Idea of Evolution in the Time of Goethe", "The Experiment as Mediator between Subject and Object", "The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World Conception", the only Latin book he had ever seen me reading, "The literary estate of Goethe in the Goethe and Schiller Archives", "Wizard: The Life and Times of Nikola Tesla: Biography of a Genius", "Goethe and the Science of the Enlightenment", Works by or about Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Works by and about Johann Wolfgang von Goethe in University Library JCS Frankfurt am Main: Digital Collections Judaica, Free scores of Johann Wolfgang von Goethe's texts, Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, Anthony Ulrich, Duke of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Johann_Wolfgang_von_Goethe&oldid=995706691, 18th-century German dramatists and playwrights, 19th-century German dramatists and playwrights, Members of the Bavarian Academy of Sciences, Members of the Zentrale Dombauverein zu Köln von 1842, Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with German-language sources (de), Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2017, Articles with incomplete citations from May 2020, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2017, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Botanist identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Léonore identifiers, Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz identifiers, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with TDVİA identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 13:28. His writings were immediately influential in literary and artistic circles. (82 évesen) Weimar: Sírhely: Weimarer Fürstengruft: Nemzetiség: német: Szülei: Johann Caspar Goethe és Catharina Elisabeth Textor: Házastársa : Christiane Vulpius: Gyermekei: August von Goethe: P Steiner elaborated on that in the books The Theory of Knowledge Implicit in Goethe's World-Conception[52] and Goethe's World View,[53] in which he characterizes intuition as the instrument by which one grasps Goethe's biological archetype—The Typus. The breast was powerful, broad, and arched; the arms and thighs were elegant, and of the most perfect shape; nowhere, on the whole body, was there a trace of either fat or of leanness and decay.

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